Frequently Asked Questions

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Heart Valve Disease FAQs

If you have been diagnosed with heart valve disease, you probably have some questions about getting treatment and life after a heart valve repair or replacement procedure.

Look on this page for answers to heart valve replacement FAQs. If you do not find your question here, use our site’s search functions. Enter key words and phrases to find your answer on other pages of our website.

You can also find answers to questions in our:

Questions about getting treatment for heart valve disease


Questions about living with a prosthetic heart valve


1. Johnson, J. A. (2012). Warfarin pharmaceuticals: A rising tide for its clinical use. Circulation, 125,1964-1966.
2. Masters, R. G., Semelhago, L. C., Pip, A. L., & Keon, W. J. (1999). Are older patients with mechanical heart valves at increased risk? Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 68, 2169-2172. 
3. Benussi, S., Pappone C, Nascimbene S, Oreto, G., Caldarola, A., Stefano, P. L., … Alfieri, O. (2000). A simple way to treat chronic atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: The epicardial radiofrequency approach. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 17, 524-529.
4. Emery, R. W., Krogh, C. C., Arom, K. V., Emery, A. M., Benyo-Albrecht, K., Joyce, L. D., & Nicoloff, D. M. (2005). The St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prosthesis: a 25-year experience with a single valve replacement. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 79, 776-783.
5. Ikonomidis, J. S., Kratz, J. M., Crumbley III, J. A., Stroud, M. R., Bradley, S. M., Sade, R. M., & Crawford, F. A. Jr. (2003). Twenty-year experience with the St. Jude Medical mechanical valve prosthesis. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery,126, 2022-2031.
6. Köertke, H., & Köerfer, R. (2001). International normalized ratio self-management after mechanical heart valve replacement: Is an early start advantageous? Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 72, 44-48.